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The Laws of Fasting According to the Hanafi School

“Every deed of the Son of Adam is for himself, except fasting – it is for Me, and I shall reward it.”

Source : Ilm Gate / 01 Jul 2014 

1.1 Order and encouragement to fast

O you who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you in order that you might learn piety . . . . The month of Ramadan is that wherein was revealed the Qur’an, as a guidance to mankind, and clear proofs of the guidance, and the Criterion. So, whoever among you witnesses the month should fast.” Quran [2:183, 185]

Описание: Неизвестный объект

“Every deed of the Son of Adam is for himself, except fasting – it is for Me, and I shall reward it.” [Muslim, Abu Dawud, Nasa'i, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah]

“There is not any believer who remains hungry, and abstains from the forbidden things, and does not wrongfully consume the wealth of Muslims, except that Allah will feed him from the fruits of Heaven.” [Musnad Abu Hanifah]

“Whoever fasts Ramadan with faith and expectation [of reward], his previous sins are forgiven him.” [Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud, Nasa'i]

1.2 Special features of Ramadan

The Prophet received his prophethood.

Revelation of the Qur’an began.

Reward is multiplied for the fasting ones.

The doors of heaven are opened, and the doors of Hell are closed.

This ummah has been given 5 favors not granted to any previous ummah.

1.3 Rewards of fasting in general

“Fasting is a shield.” [Ahmad]

“There is not any servant who fasts a day in the path of Allah, except that Allah will distance him from the Fire by a distance of seventy years.” [Bukhari, Muslim]

“Fasting the month of patience and three days of each month remove rancor of the heart.” [Ahmad, Bazzar]

1.4 Warning against abandoning fasting in Ramadan

“Whoever breaks his fast in Ramadan without a [valid] concession or illness, he cannot repay it, even if he were to fast the rest of his life.” [Tirmidhi, Nasa'i, Ibn Majah]

1.5 Ramadan in the history of the Muslims

The prophethood of Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), and the revelation of the Qur’an.

The victory in the Battle of Badr.

The Triumph of Makkah.

The Conquest of Andalus (Spain) in 92 A.H.

Battle against and expulsion of the Crusaders in 582 A.H., under Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi.

Defeat of the Tartars in 702 A.H.

1.6 Ramadan in the life of the Muslim

The month of worship, recitation of Qur’an and remembrance of Allah.

Disappearance of evil behavior on account of Ramadan.

Strengthening of bonds in the ummah.

Increase in donations and charity.

Punishment of those who eat openly.

Establishment of Tarawih prayers.

Performance of `umrah for those capable.

2.1 Definition of fasting

Abstaining from those things which break the fast, for the specified period of time, with the appropriate intention.

2.2 Conditions of fasting

Conditions for being obligatory

Sanity, adulthood, well-being of senses, receipt of knowledge.

Conditions for offering

Health, residence.

Conditions for validity

Islam, intention, freedom from menstrual and post-natal bleeding (for women).

2.3 Types of fast

Compulsory : a) Ramadan b) Vowed

Sunnah : monday and thursday, Arafah, `Ashura’, 3 days/month, 6 days of Shawwal.

Optional

Disliked : Friday alone, `Ashura’ alone, the Day of Doubt.

Forbidden : The two `Ids, the days of Tashriq, every day, wife without husband’s permission.

3.1 Establishment of the start of Ramadan

An Islamic judge’s acceptance of the testimony of two upright Muslims that they saw the moon, or one if the sky was cloudy.

One sighting is enough for surrounding areas, but not for very distant places (majority view).

3.2 Etiquettes and desirable practices

Preparing for the month.

Bringing to mind the bounty of Allah.

Purifying one’s intention

Pre-dawn meal (suhur) as late as safely possible.

Not unnecessarily delaying the breakingof the fast.

Performing salat al-Maghrib soon after breakign the fast, then returning to eat.

Making du`a at the time of breaking the fast.

Enabling others to break their fasts.

Abstaining from all forbidden deeds.

Maintaining a pleasant disposition.

Abundant reciting of the Qur’an.

Abundant charity.

Performing tarawih prayers.

3.3 Benefits of fasting

Opportunity for reward and raising of ranks.

Obedience to Allah.

Training in piety.

Protection from sin.

Training in patience and regularity.

Resting the digestive system, and curing certain ailments.

4.1 Invalidators of the fast

Sexual intercourse, even if no ejaculation occurred. (Kaffarah to be performed)

Deliberate eating and/or drinking. (Kaffarah to be performed)

Emission of semen due to touching, kissing, etc.

Masturbation.

Entering of any substance into the body cavity, whether for some reason or not : medicine, nose-drops, ear-drops, incense smoke, tobacco smoke, anal medicine.

Intentional vomiting.

Entering of a substance into the body on account of a mistake. (e.g. swallowing water during wudu.)

Eating after fajr, not checking whether fajr has entered.

Blood from the nose reaching the throat.

4.2 What is disliked (sinful) for the fasting person, but without breaking the fast

‘Tasting’ food without swallowing; using toothpaste.

A young man kissing his wife.

Weakening the body (e.g. cupping, strenuous sport)

Gathering saliva and swallowing it; rinsing the mouth unnecessarily.

Backbiting, and other prohibited activities.

4.3 Excuses permitting breaking the fast

Sickness which threatens the life or causes deterioration of condition if fasting is done.

Genuine danger for a pregnant mother, or for her fetus.

Genuine fear for the life of a suckling infant (if the milk would dry up with fasting).

An optional fast may be broken to accept an invitation, but it must be made up.

4.4 Excuses permitting abstaining from the fast

Extreme old age which renders a person decrepit.

Sickness, as in 4.3 above.

Pregnancy, as in 4.3 above.

Breast-feeding, as in 4.3 above.

Travelling more than 81 km.

Menstruation and post-natal bleeding.

 

 

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